Instructional Design and Technology

Scope Creep

Scope Creep

A few years back I was running a business, which was doing great and turned out that the location was too small and we needed to relocate to a larger location.  When planning the move we determined to overlap the storefronts for only a short amount of time and figured we could move and set up the new location in about a weeks timeframe.  As it turns out the week we allowed for the move had a massive snow storm crippling the town and making travel impossible as well as having contractors cancel.

We made it to the new location, but had to extend the time period by an additional week.  Because the locations were not open during this extra time there was a loss of revenue and some clients did not realize the move had occurred.  The business that moved into the former location was not willing to keep a sign up notifying people of the move. 

Looking back, it would have been better to have a longer timeframe for the relocation and to have both locations up and running for a time period to allow the customers to be acclimated to the idea of moving to the bigger and better location.  Having a longer timeframe set in place would have also helped in the environmental factors and would allow time for the snow cleanup and for normal business to be back up and running. 


Estimating Costs and Time in Instructional Design

One of the difficult parts of being a project manager is coming with the projected budget for any given project. The two sites listed here give the same information and breakdown the design time per hour of instruction.  This breakdown is not just given in one way, but into the different types of learning that is going to be taken place.  Another aspect of these articles that is helpful is that there is a table that represents the percentage of time for each particular phase of the project.

Training Cost Guidelines. Retrieved from

Estimating Costs and Time in Instructional Design. Retrieved from


This website allows the ID and PM to analyze and identify the appropriate goals for the project at hand, which will lead to knowing the steps that will be necessary to the final development.

Identify Instructional Goals and Analyze Tasks



The last link discussed the use of the ADDIE model in the design development and gives good visual description of how the costs have changed over the past few years. And again we see the importance of communication – the article points out “we may not want to do it, but more communication is effective for keeping project stakeholders current and familiar with the project and its present status and issues.”

Time to Develop One Hour of Training. Retrieved from




There are many forms of communication within the workplace and each can portray a different feel even though the same thing is said. “Facial expressions are a universal language of emotion, instantly conveying happiness, sadness, anger, fear, and much more. Reading these expressions is essential to compassion and empathy” (UCB, 2012). When writing an email it is difficult for the reader to know what emotions are meant by the text.

In “The Art of Effective Communication” three means of communicating the same question/concern to a fellow employee are addressed. 

The first one I looked at was that of the written communication via e-mail.  The problem with email is that the reader cannot easily tell from the written text what emotions and the words can come across strong.  Jane tried to show that she cared from Mark and knew he had been busy, but she still was in need of a response.

Second I looked at the Audio clip which was a voicemail sent to Mark.  My first impressions were that Jane was coming across strong and more  demanding. Although the listener, Mark, would be able to hear the tone in her voice, she still seemed to come across strong.  If the listener didn’t pay close attention in the very beginning of the conversation it would be a very strong request for the completed work on the project.

Finally, I looked at the face-to-face conversation and you can now see the emotions and expressions. The conversation was still demanding work to be done and action to the taken, but because it was a face-to-face meeting the feeling was more pleasant and seemed friendlier.

Each communication gives the same information, but some will always be more forceful than others.  E-mail communications can be used, but need to be written properly as to not come across as the writer is yelling.  Personal communication is always the best because body language can tell a lot about the person’s mood.


University of California, Burkeley (UCB). (2012). The Greater Good. Retrieved from


Project Management “Post-Mortem”

I was recently involved in a project within the high school that I work.  I was not the project manage, but a team member working on the implementation stage.  The school was and still is working on implementing blended learning environments.  This blended environment was taking place in the Algebra 1 classes and allowed the students to work at their own pace through lessons and assignments.

The project hit a few stumbling blocks along the way and looking back now some of them could have been avoided.  For the next phase (next school year) the implementation has better technology available.  In the initial phase the program was unable to run efficiently and would shut down due to the fact that the school did not have sufficient band width to have so many computers using the network at the same time.  This problem could have been avoided all together if during the initial design and development stage the PM and ID evaluated these requirements.

With the limited access some team members became frustrated and developed negative attitudes towards the project/program.  With the negative attitude coming from authority figures the students then became frustrated and began to refuse to participate.  The problems were identified and made clear to the administration when they came up, but the time and cost to find the solution did not allow for a quick fix.



  • What do you think the perceptions of distance learning will be in the future (in 5–10 years; 10–20 years)?

With ever changing technologies the future of distance education is rapidly growing.  Over the next 5-10 years I see online learning becoming more defined and well knows.  And then over the next 10-20 years distance education will be greatly recognized as an educational setting just as or more rigorous than the classroom setting.

Just as technology is changing, so are the instructors/facilitators.  “As “old heads” retire and new, more technologically literate young instructors replace them” (Hyatt, 1998, 10).  When the instructor turnover is more complete the educational world will have newer blood, which leads to newer ideas and more innovative thinking. Online education can begin anywhere.  Some instructors started by creating a blended learning environment were they held class in an online chat room one night a week (Hyatt).


  • How can you as an instructional designer be a proponent for improving societal perceptions of distance learning?

As I enter the world of Instruction Design (ID), I will continue to evolve with the ever-changing times and allow for the research and study of what new inventions/methods evolve.  As more and more programs become available as online courses, I will help in promoting positive settings and opening the eyes of skeptics to the world of distance education.


  • How will you be a positive force for continuous improvement in the field of distance education?

I have taken courses online and have taught classes through a belended environment. To shine a positive light on the field of distance education I would like to continue to offer my classes (at the high school level) in a blended setting.  I am unable to move class to solely online, but will continue to add to the rigor of my programs by having the students participate in online discussions and post.  Entering into the distance education environment allows for “learning opportunities at a time and place convenient for the learner” (Kaufman, 2001, Pg25)



Hyatt, S. (1998). Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration. Distance learning in the millenium: Where is it going?1(1)Retrieved from


Kaufman, R., Watkins, R., & Guerra, I. (May-June 2001). Educational Technology. The future of distance learning: Defining and sustaining useful results. Retrieved from

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Face-to-Face Training Changing to Blended Learning

Week 7 Application – EDUC6135

Face-to-Face Training Changing to Blended Learning


What are some of the pre-planning strategies the trainer needs to consider before converting his program?

            As the trainer has become frustrated with the quality of his face-to-face training sessions he receives permission to convert the program to a blending learning environment.  Before considering the conversion of this program he needs to make sure he has knowledge of how to create online learning.  He needs the proper material and must set goals and objectives for the learners to be able to address. Work with the facilitator and develop a course management system to aide students in online discussions.  In order to design the blended course he must consider the design and development of the training program. Online training is using technology to exchange ideas and provide access to more people (Bebawi, n.d.). Distance education is the separation of teacher and student (Simonson, Smaldino, Albright, & Zvacek, 2012) and blended learning allows for extra learning and communication outside the traditional classroom.

What aspects of his original training program could be enhanced in the distance learning format?

            In converting his training into the blended learning setting, he is going to be able to keep many aspects of his original training material.  In keeping the material he will then need to add more interaction between learners (peer interaction).  The content of the course can now be enhanced with the learner interaction with each other allowing for further growth and development.  When distance learning is present the role of discussions become critical (Andersen, 2009).

How will his role, as trainer, change in a distance learning environment?

            Now the trainer moves into the role of a facilitator, he/she no longer lectures or performs demonstrations in front of a class.  They are now there to make sure the students are participating and demonstrating knowledge along the way. Distance learning is independent learning at a distance through the means of self-study texts and non-contiguous communication (Sampson, 2003).

What steps should the trainer take to encourage the trainees to communicate online?

             The trainer is now instructing the learners to perform in online discussions and a great way to motivate the students is to provide some guidance, but not over communicate. The discussion board is for the students to collaborate with peers and understand the material.  The instructor, in this case the trainer, is there to keep the conversation moving and when conversation dies down they are there to ask thought provoking questions and bring the discussion back to life. 



Andersen, M. (2009). Asynchronous discussion forums: success factors, outcomes, assessments, and limitations. Educational Technology & Society. 12(1), 249-257.

Bebawi, S. (n.d). Definition of online education as distance learning. Retreived from

Sampson, N. (2003). Meeting the needs of distance learners. Language Learning & Technology, 7(3), 103-118.

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Week 5 Application: Blog—The Impact of Open Source

The online open course offered through Yale is the Philosophy 181: Philosophy and the Science of Human Nature.  This course is designed like you are sitting in the lecture hall. The course itself was not truly designed for the online learner, but for the face to face.  There were some components that were added for the online setting, as in, having reading guides, credit list, and some online test.  These test were more for self-knowledge and to see if you had the right idea behind the philosophy class.

The course was broken up into video sections that were designed the same way a regular classroom course would be divided, with each video lecture being around 35 to 50 minutes in length.  The videos were recordings of Professor Gendler’s lectures of the course.  The philosophy class had student interaction during parts were the in-class student was able to respond with technology to select what they thought was the appropriate thing to do in a given situations.

The students were given A, B or C options and the percents were computed for the class responses.  This allowed for some interaction between the in-class learning, but the online learner of this open course was not able to participate. Open classroom students would not be able to participate in this style of questioning because the actual class itself is not being taught at the given time that the online learner is seeing it.

The course itself followed the design process in order for it to be implemented, such as the ADDIE, but when it comes to the online there were only some components of design carried out.  The online version or open course allows the learner to see the progression of videos.  The video lectures are displayed in order and once one is started or opened there are options for the learner to download transcripts, reading guides and reference lists.  This open course is just a classroom technology that is using recordings of the lectures to present to learners (Simonson, 2012).

There were activities with in the philosophy course that allowed the in class learner to become interactive with the peers and instructor, but the online learner was unable to participate.  The online course offered links to self-test that were used to keep the learner encaged and interested in continuing.  These online links were not mandatory, but allowed for some interaction without the professor needed to be available.

Open course URL – through Yale

Simonson, M., Smaldino, S., Albright, M., & Zvacek, S. (2012). Teacher and learning at a distance: foundations of distance education. (5th ed.) Boston, MA: Pearson.

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Asynchronous Training

Example: Asynchronous Training

In an effort to improve its poor safety record, a biodiesel manufacturing plant needs a series of safety training modules. These stand-alone modules must illustrate best practices on how to safely operate the many pieces of heavy machinery on the plant floor. The modules should involve step-by-step processes and the method of delivery needs to be available to all shifts at the plant. As well, the shift supervisors want to be sure the employees are engaged and can demonstrate their learning from the modules.

To begin a safety-training module one must start with determining where the training will take place.  For this biodiesel manufacturing plant the module must be designed to accommodate each shift of employees.  Since, there are multiple shifts the training would be best completed individually.  For individual instruction creating a video demonstration with quizzes at the end of each segment and then a final assessment at the end of the entire training would allow for each employee to demonstrate knowledge and retention for the desired outcome.  Setting up this virtual learning environment would allow for “testing, outside of class time” (Simonson, Smaldino, Albright, & Zvacek, 2012. P 183). 

The objective in training “is to ensure that employees obtain the knowledge, skills, and abilities” (SafetySkills, 2012) for the environment in which they work.  The National Safety Council also offers online training programs that organizations can customize for their workplace environments. The courses are offered in English and Spanish and give companies the ability to prevent incidents and fines.


SafetySkills. (2012). Competency-based, web-based EHS training. Retrieved from

Simonson, M., Smaldino, S., Albright, M., Zvacek, S. (2012). Teaching and Learning at a Distance. (5th ed.). Boston: Pearson.

National Safety Council. Retrieved from

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Distance Learning

Before the start on this online program of instructional design and technology, I had limited knowledge of what distance learning really was.  Throughout my education, grade school through postgraduate, I had only taken part in traditional classroom learning. I attended a college that did not offer online courses and if you did not report to class your grade was affected. As I entered into the world of education myself I was introduced to distance learning within the high school I am currently teaching. The school had a lab that was able to connect to others around the world. One of the classes that utilized this tool was the science class. Those in the medical field would be able to watch live operations. Other classes would communicate with NASA. Both allowing the students, from poorer backgrounds, to see more of what is to offer, giving them the opportunity to achieve more. 

In this weeks resources there was a definition of distance learning that says it all, distance learning is “institution-based, formal education where the learning group is separated, and where interactive telecommunication systems are used to connect learners, resources, and instructors” (Simonson, 2012). I believe this is a good definition for distance learning, but there is still some flexibility with it. 

Distance learning does not just have to be a formal education. It has evolved to be formal in the education and training settings, but corporations can utilize distance learning as a tool to discussions and meetings around the globe. Using distance learning as a resource tool enables education and corporations to extend their knowledge beyond their walls. 

The definition of distance is always changing because the means of delivery are always changing.  Distance learning was first done by means of print (news papers).  In the late 70’s early 80’s we began to use computers and the Internet to learn from a distance (Simonson, 2012).  Today we can have entire classes conducted online and through video and chat.

As the evolution of learning comes about, the employers also need to realize the growth. Distance learning is not going away, it is only getting stronger and wider spread.  When employers receive resumes from potential employees that have online universities for their education, they need to realize that they have just as much credibility.  The “gatekeepers” (Columbaro, 2009) need to not weed out the online learners.





Columbaro, N. L., & Monaghan, C. H. (2009). Employer Perceptions of Online Degrees: A Literature Review. Online Journal of Distance Learning Administration, XII, (1).

Moller, L., Foshay, W. R., & Huett, J. (2008). The Evolution of Distance Education: Implications for Instructional Design on the Potential of the Web. TechTrends , 63-76. 

Simonson, M., Smaldino, S., Albright, M., & Zvacek, S. (2012). Teaching and learning at a distance: foundations of distance education fifth edition. Boston: Allyn & Bacon.



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I look forward to seeing what becomes of all of our blogs throughout this class.  Best of luck 🙂